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African-Americans in Pro Football: Pioneers, Milestones and Firsts
1892 Wyoming Seminary vs. Mansfield State Normal football game
NFL's first night game
Charles Follis led early black pioneers in pro football
Although he is recognized today as the first professional football player, William (Pudge) Heffelfinger's pro debut in 1892 wasn't exactly headline news. In fact, his acceptance of $500 to play a single game for the Allegheny Athletic Association wasn't reported — no doubt they didn't know about it — by the local press. Evidence of Heffelfinger's "first" came some 80 years later when Pro Football Hall of Fame officials discovered the AAA's accounting ledger with its notation of payment to the Yale All-America. The now historic document can be seen at the pro football museum in Canton, Ohio, in a display commemorating the birth of professional football.
In the same display is a sampling of early-day pro teams, including one from Shelby, Ohio. While not too unlike the others, the 1902 Shelbyteam photo does have at least one notable difference.
Upon close examination it becomes apparent that one player is slightly offset from the rest. He is seated between and at the end of the first and second rows of the three-row arrangement. Standing rigidly behind the player with his hand firmly placed on his shoulder like a protective father is the team's promoter. This slightly odd arrangement of people in any other photo probably would go unnoticed. However, in this case the Shelbyplayer receiving special treatment is Charles Follis, the first documented African American professional football player.
Like Heffelfinger, Follis's pioneering role was not recognized by sports historians until many years later. Unlike the Heffelfinger debut, however, Follis's professionalism was reported by the local press.
History of Electricity
Lewis Howard Latimer (1843-1928), a pioneer in the development of the electric light bulb, was the only Black member of Thomas A. Edison's research team of noted scientists. While Edison invented the incandescent bulb, it was Latimer, a member of the Edison Pioneers, and former assistant to telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell, who developed and patented the process for manufacturing the carbon filaments.
ILO Decent Work Team and Office for the Caribbean
Section : Case 5: From negative to positive financial results – St. Vincent Electricity Company (VINLEC)
About the ILO
:: The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. Its main aims are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue in handling work-related issues. In promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, the organization continues to pursue its founding mission that labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of decent jobs and the kinds of economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress.
Le Tableau de planètes extérieures
… observed on many occasions before its discovery as a planet, but it was generally mistaken for a star… Sir William Herschel observed the planet on March 13, 1781 while in the garden of his house at 19 New King Street in the town of Bath, Somerset
History of electromagnetic theory
• The Axis and the Magnetic Field of Uranus
— As a result of this tipped axis of rotation, Uranus has a magnetotail that is twisted into a long corkscrew. The tail is tilted at a 60-degree angle, off-center from the planet's axis. It is even surprising that Uranus has a magnetic field, since new evidence has thrown out the theory that an electrically conductive sea of ammonia and water exists in the interior of the planet. The cause of the tilt in its magnetic field is probably due to interior activity not too far from the surface.
• Uranus » Internal structure
— Uranus's atmosphere, while similar to Jupiter and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia and methane, along with traces of hydrocarbons. It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System… The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky (silicate/iron-nickel) core in the center, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope… The ice mantle is not in fact composed of ice in the conventional sense, but of a hot and dense fluid consisting of water, ammonia and other volatiles. This fluid, which has a high electrical conductivity, is sometimes called a water–ammonia ocean.
• Super Scientists - Luigi Galvani
— Galvani was born, educated and taught anatomy in Bologna. The Italian physiologist made one of the early discoveries that advanced the study of electricity. His work with frogs led to his discovery in 1781 of galvanic or voltaic electricity.
Joseph Priestley - The king of serendipity
- Added to this long list is the decomposition of ammonia by electricity in 1781.
Joseph Priestley [+][+]
— He next examined the effect of the electric spark on ammonia, and showed that its effect was due to the heat and not to the light of the spark, as by concentrating the sun's rays upon pieces of earthenware, etc., inside a vessel containing ammonia gas, he succeeded in bringing about a similar decomposition to that produced by the electric spark. » Decomposition of Ammonia
• A New Chemical Industry Established by M. Camille Vincent
— "After I had made the discovery of the marine acid air
, which the vapour of spirit of salt may properly enough be called, it occurred to me that, by a process similar to that by which this acid
air is expelled from the spirit of salt, an alkaline
air might be expelled from substances containing the volatile alkali. Accordingly I procured some volatile spirit of sal-ammoniac, and having put it into a thin phial and heated it with a flame of a candle, I presently found that a great quantity of vapour was discharged from it, and being received into a basin of quicksilver it continued in the form of a transparent and permanent air, not at all condensed by cold." These words, written by Joseph Priestley rather more than one hundred years ago, describe the experiment by which ammonia was first obtained in the gaseous state. Unacquainted with the composition of this alkaline air, Priestley showed that it increased in volume when electric sparks are passed through it, or when the alkaline air (ammonia) is heated the residue consists of inflammable air (hydrogen)… Coal, the remains of an ancient vegetable world, contains about 2 per cent, of nitrogen, the greater part of which is obtained in the form of ammonia when the coal undergoes the process of dry distillation. In round numbers two million tons of coal are annually distilled for the manufacture of coal gas in this country, and the ammoniacal water of the gasworks contains the salt of ammonium in solution.
• If the Cost of Ice Continues to Rise Electric refrigeration may become profitable
(Popular Science, Sep 1920
) — Let us therefore redescribe the ammonia process in such a way as to bring out what is essential to understanding the electrical process.
• The catalytic decomposition of ammonia: Electric field effect on the catalytic activity
— The decomposition of ammonia over a Pt-Rh-Pd catalyst
has been studied in an electric field.
• Giorgio Vasari » Competition and "Competition"
— According to the historian Richard Goldthwaite, Vasari was one of the earliest authors to use the word "competition" (or "concorrenza") in Italian in its economic sense. He used it repeatedly, but perhaps most notably while explaining the reasons for Florentine preeminence, in the introduction to his life of Pietro Perugino. In Vasari's view, Florentine artists excelled because they were hungry, and they were hungry because their fierce competition for commissions each with the others kept them hungry. Competition, he said, is "one of the nourishments that maintain them."
• Second Industrial Revolution
— The concept was introduced by Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution
(1915), but David Landes's use of the term in a 1966 essay and in The Unbound Prometheus
(1972) standardized scholarly definitions of the term, which was most intensely promoted by American historian Alfred Chandler (1918–2007). However some continue to express reservations about its use. Landes (20) stresses the importance of new technologies, especially electricity, the internal combustion engine, new materials and substances, including alloys and chemicals, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and radio. While the first industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.
• David Hudson & White Powder Gold
— It's the stuff that's in your catalytic converter
• How Catalytic Converters Work
— In chemistry, a catalyst is a substance that causes or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected. Catalysts participate in the reactions, but are neither reactants nor products of the reaction they catalyze… In the catalytic converter, there are two different types of catalyst at work, a reduction catalyst and an oxidation catalyst. Both types consist of a ceramic structure coated with a metal catalyst, usually platinum, rhodium and/or palladium.
• Catalytic converter » Environmental impact
— Catalytic converter production requires palladium or platinum; part of the world supply of these precious metals is produced near Norilsk, Russia, where the industry (among others) has caused Norilsk to be added to Time magazine's list of most-polluted places.
• Palladium » Catalysis
— Palladium is also a versatile metal for homogeneous catalysis.
• Palladium Catalysts
— Despite the pervasiveness of VOCs, few cost-effective cleanup technologies are available. This research brief focuses on palladium catalysis -- a promising new technique that may expand the treatment options for halogenated VOCs such as PCE.
» Voyager Swings By Uranus--Lightning On Uranus
» Radio detection of uranian lightning by Voyager 2
» Lightning storm on Saturn is longest in solar system
» Cassini Sees Saturn Electric Link with Enceladus
» Ceres As An Abode Of Life [ammonia]
» Terence McKenna--Lectures on Alchemy
» Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements (ORMEs)
• Solar Fire, Electric Fire, Cosmic Fire
— As for Electric Fire, Bailey describes this as the individual person identifying with the monad
-- the spiritual source of everything. We see this illustrated in the image of Uranus about to enter Aries. We get the fire from the sign involved and the sensation of 'electric' from the planet involved. Uranus in Aries is about self-awareness and individual awakening, but thanks to this odd energy vortex called the Aries Point -- the first degree of Aries -- there is a node that affects nearly everyone. It's where the individual and collective realms intersect. As was said in the 1970s, 'the personal is political'. When one person wakes up, it's easier for other people to wake up -- and pretty soon it becomes a culture-wide wave of energy. Uranus is working its way into a square aspect with Pluto in Capricorn. Uranus square Pluto is the heart of 2012 astrology. This aspect is the essence of revolutionary astrology, and if you can't tell from glancing at the newspaper, the revolutionary spirit is coming back to the world.
• A Treatise on Cosmic Fire
— The Saturn scheme is esoterically regarded as having absorbed the "frictional fires of systemic space"; Neptune is looked upon as the repository of the "solar flames," and Uranus as the home of "fire electric." [+]
• From Humanistic to Transpersonal Astrology
— Alice Bailey, who, I met early in 1920 in Hollywood, liked my articles, and suggested I should write a treatise developing their contents. She offered to have the book published at the Lucis Press which she and her husband had started in connection with the Arcane School, a new theosophical group. In this book, The Astrology of Personality, my main ideas on astrology, on holism and on the cyclic process of existence are contained in seed. It was written during the summer 1934-1935 in New Mexico, and completed in Hollywood in 1936. Though I never joined the Arcane School, I had great admiration for Alice Bailey's utter dedication to her work, and for her personal courage and strength of character. I was impressed by her earlier books, especially Treatise on Cosmic Fire which she was writing when we met in 1920, and, touched by her offer to take the risk of publishing my large volume. I not only dedicated it to her, but referred in several places to the ideas she was promoting, in so far as they were related to H. P. Blavatsky's Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine, which had meant so much to the development of my historical sense and my deeper mind.
• Dennis Frank: Dane Rudhyar's reformulation of astrological theory
— Dane Rudhyar wrote his first book on astrology in 1935, and it was published the following year. Entitled "The Astrology of Personality: a Reinterpretation of Astrological Concepts and Ideals in Terms of Contemporary Psychology and Philosophy", it was dedicated to his friend and fellow-Theosophist, Alice Bailey. It stands the test of time pretty well, particulary in view of the fact that few astrologers since have attempted any such intellectual endeavour… That said, I must concede that Rudhyar's vision was flawed by his idealism. The baggage he carried from the social context of the Theosophical Society prevented him from integrating a scientific perspective. Here I must extend the reader the courtesy of acknowledging my own bias, due to my education in physics. If Rudhyar's cosmology had incorporated more of a physical perspective, it would probably have become accessible to scientific theoreticians with sympathetic metaphysical inclinations. Instead the Theosophical window-dressing obscures the inherent merit of the substance of his theory. He notes in his preface that "scientists are more and more concerned with the solar system as the 'cosmic environment' of our planet". (AP p.ix) Unfortunately this early premonition of the looming environmental perspective has been insufficiently followed up and incorporated.
• Alice Bailey & Rudhyar: [+][+][+][+][+][+]
• The Riddle of the USA Horoscope
— One of the most significant planetary positions in the Sagittarius rising chart is that of Uranus. If there is a house in which Uranus, symbol of radical change and transformation, should be in the American chart, it is certainly the house of labor and of health-care, the Sixth House. Not to see that is really to refuse to accept the most obvious facts, for Americans, more than any people in the world, have totally transformed the techniques of work an conditions of the laboring classes — mass production, the development of labor unions, etc. America has, moreover, been a fertile field for the discovery of new methods of healing — osteopathy, chiropractice, and all kinds of "spiritual healing" since the beginning of Christian Science. The Sixth House is also the house which deals with the national services — and the Army and the Air Force have brought to America and to the world many new departures, including, of course, the use of the atom bomb made of enriched uranium.
• Composer's Voices from Ives to Ellington [+]
— Dane Rudhyar's passion for America began when he arrived from France before World War I. He wrote, "I feel that anything that breaks down the narrow idolatry of musicians with regard to European musical concepts is valuable." He adopted both coasts and was a founding member of the New York-based International Composers' Guild and the New Music Society in California. His break from his European roots was so extreme that he changed his name from Daniel Chennevière to Dane Rudhyar, a name derived from the Sanskrit rudra
, meaning dynamic action, and relating to the color red, the color associated with his astrological sign, Aries, and its ruling planet, Mars.
The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism
From Lodestones to Satellites
Knowing that gold and silver medals were usually struck to commemorate major dynastic events, in September 1608 Galileo wrote to Cosimo's mother, Grand Duchess Cristina
, proposing an emblem for a medal.  The letter is a concise summary of Medici
dynastic ideology and presents a subtle "scientific" metaphor for the "naturalness" of the Medici rule. Referring to the lodestone
he had bought for Prince Cosimo
a few months earlier, Galileo compared the power of a future absolute ruler like Prince Cosimo to that of the lodestone. Using the terminology of the emblemist Giovio
, Galileo proposed that the "body" (i.e., the image) of the impresa
be a globe-shaped lodestone that would hold a number of small pieces of iron around it.  The "soul" of the impresa (i.e., the motto) was Vim Facit Amor
("Love produces strength").
Galileo was well aware of the tensions underlying the representations of the Medici's absolute rule. On the one hand, the Medici wanted to stress the "naturalness" of their rule and the assent given to it by their subjects; on the other hand, they wished to emphasize the power of their rule and its lack of tolerance for deviant behavior. Galileo solved this riddle of political imagery by identifying in the sympathetic attraction between the lodestone and the small pieces of iron a fine metaphor for the Medici political agenda. According to Galileo's image, the pieces of iron (the subjects) seemed to be voluntarily driven up (elevated) toward the lodestone (the Medici power), for its force was not felt by other materials. Those pieces of iron (the subjects) wanted to be attracted. But, at the same time, such an uplifting attraction was powerful and ultimately inevitable. It was based on love
but manifested itself as power
. The motto Vim Facit Amor
captures the meaning of the image. According to Galileo, the allegorical meaning of the motto was that
as fragments of iron are lifted up and held by the lodestone (but with a sort of loving violence, for they seek the stone avidly, as if they were rushing voluntarily to it), so that it is difficult to tell whether such a tenacious bond is the result of the strength of the magnet, the natural tendency of the iron, or the loving dialectic of power and obedience, the pious and courteous affection of the Prince — represented by the lodestone — does not oppress but rather lifts up his subjects, and makes them — represented by the fragments of iron — love and obey him. 
Galileo then explained to Cristina that the globe-shaped lodestone was itself an allegory of Cosimo as the cosmos and of the Medici coat of arms
, which contains six globes. Those analogies had been employed fifty years earlier by Vasari [+]
in the Piazza della Signoria
's Room of the Elements
[Art of the Medici Palazzos
. There the painter represented a Capricorn (Cosimo
's ascendant sign) [+][+]
holding between its hooves a globe that signified both one of the balls of the Medici coat of arms and the cosmos held in check by Cosimo.  The Cosimo-as-cosmos theme recurs in other paintings in the Apartment of the Elements as well as in the palazzo's Room of the Geographical Maps.  This room contained a large armillary sphere, as well as a terrestrial globe in the center and maps representing the entire world, all designed and partially executed by the cosmographer Ignazio Danti. 
The analogy between Cosimo and cosmos (which Galileo would bring up again a few years later while negotiating the dedication of the Sidereus nuncius
to Cosimo II) [+]
had been an important part of Medici mythology since the mid-sixteenth century. Names incorporating the term "cosmos" proliferated. When in 1548 Cosimo I gained control of Portoferraio
, the island of Elba's most important harbor, he had it fully fortified and called "Cosmopoli."  This onomastic revisionism found perhaps its strongest expression during the "cultural revolution" that accompanied the constitution of the grand duchy of Tuscany
that institutionalized the absolute power of the Medici. At that time Cosimo replaced Florence's old patron saints, Zenobi
(who were perceived as emblems of the old republican tradition), with Saints Cosma
and Damiano [Saints Cosmas and Damian
, who while on earth were practicing physicians — "medici" being the Italian term for "physicians."  The feast day of Saints Cosma and Damiano (September 27) coincided with the birthday of Cosimo il Vecchio
(1389-1464) — the pater patriae
. Like Cosma, both Cosimo I and Cosimo il Vecchio were represented as the physicians of Florence for having saved the city from the deadly plague of political disorder. Even as early as 1513, Leo X
, the Medici pope who was instrumental in securing the duchy of Florence for the Medici, had instituted an annual holiday — the Cosmalia
— allegedly in honor of Saint Cosma. In fact, the holiday was dedicated to the memory of Cosimo il Vecchio and was meant as a tribute to the Medici rule. 
In the 1560s the logo ΚΟΣΜΟΣ ΚΟΣΜΟΥ ΚΟΣΜΟΣ [GRK-2000
] — Greek for "The cosmos is Cosimo's world [or domain]" was included in Medici-commissioned works of art.  References to Cosimo as cosmos continued to emerge in Medici-related cultural productions, especially when "Cosimo" happened to be the current ruler's name.  In his proposal for the impresa of 1608, Galileo reinforced the Cosimo-cosmos theme by suggesting that Magnus Magnes Cosmos
should have been the motto on the other side of the medal, which was to contain Cosimo's effigy. "If taken literally [the motto] means only that the world is a great lodestone, but, taken metaphorically, it also confirms the impresa."  By substituting "Magnes" for "Dux" in the standard Latin version of Cosimo's title, "Magnus Dux Cosmos" ("Cosimo Grand Duke"), Galileo made the magnet a metaphor for the ruler by reinforcing the analogy between magnetic attraction and the prince's power.