Total Solar Eclipse of July 22
Across the East China Sea, the umbra sweeps over Japan's Ryukyu Islands and Iwo Jima. Greatest eclipse occurs in the South Pacific at 02:35:19 UT.
Solar eclipse of July 22, 2009: Duration
This solar eclipse was the longest total solar eclipse to occur in the 21st century, and will not be surpassed in duration until 13 June 2132. Totality lasted for up to 6 minutes and 39 seconds, with the maximum eclipse occurring in the ocean at 02:35:21 UTC about 100 km south of the Bonin Islands, southeast of Japan. The uninhabited North Iwo Jima island was the landmass with totality time closest to maximum, while the closest inhabited point was Akusekijima, where the eclipse lasted 6 minutes and 26 seconds.
22-Jul-09 Total Solar Eclipse @ 02:34:360256UT [+]
090722 Sun 29 cn 26'31.3897 0.9551769 20°16' 3.3560
090722 Moon 29 cn 26'31.3897 15.1781635 20°20'15.0417
10169 Ogasawara (1995 DK)
Discovered 1995 Feb. 21 by T. Kobayashi at Oizumi. CITATION: Located in the Pacific Ocean 1000 km south of Tokyo, the Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Islands), with their extraordinary natural environment, are dubbed the "Galapagos of the Orient". On the Titi-jima Island is the National Astronomical Observatory's Ogasawara Station of VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry).
Moon conj Ogasawara 23-Jul-09 @ 04:31:278265UT
090723 Sun 0 le 28'29.3539 0.9553095 20° 2'56.5600
090723 Moon 15 le 47'35.3118 15.0397205 14°44'23.4879
090723 Ogasawara 15 le 47'35.3118 0.4470498 13°45'15.9660
Sun conj Ogasawara 22-Aug-09 @ 09:19:111885UT
090822 Moon 26 vi 29'16.9361 14.3890646 -2°36'11.3352
090822 Sun 29 le 25'29.0957 0.9638008 11°40'25.0540
090822 Ogasawara 29 le 25'29.0957 0.4542980 10°15'46.2242
10° Separating Orb, Sun conj Ogasawara 10-Sep-09 @ 20:57:7716295UT
090910 Moon 2 ge 39'39.1353 13.6294484 24°53' 1.9177
090910 Sun 18 vi 16'42.1771 0.9722191 4°38' 7.3545
090910 Ogasawara 8 vi 16'42.1771 0.4539080 7°37'44.8014
Ogasawara Window offically closed Fri Aug 21, 2009 at 02:05:43 PM PDT [+]
090821 Moon 19 vi 6'41.8477 14.5706195 0°40'15.7136
090821 Sun 28 le 56' 1.9640 0.9636199 11°50'41.6877
090821 Ogasawara 29 le 11'36.0945 0.4542618 10°19'42.5058
Cuzco Block :: 475 Ocllo, 504 Cora, 505 Cava, 2738 Viracocha,
2739 Taguacipa, 4003 Schumann, 4721 Atahualpa, 8275 Inca, 8277 Machu-Picchu,
10781 Ritter, 21550 Laviolette
Empires of the Atlantic World
Britain and Spain in America 1492-1830
John Huxtable Elliott
Anon., Angel Carrying Arquebus
. Peru, Cuzco school
(eighteenth century). Andean artists developed in the later seventeenth century a unique iconography representing a celestial militia composed of elegantly attired angels and archangels, many of them sporting arquebuses
. Alongside the biblical archangels, Michael and Gabriel, the series frequently showed apocryphal archangels, whose inclusion, regarded as heterodox in Europe, passed without challenge in America. The origins of the iconography remain uncertain. It could well reflect the teachings of Christian missionaries in the Andes, but depictions of a militant heavenly host carried echoes of pre-conquest religious beliefs which may help to account for its popularity among the peoples of the Andes. The angelic manoeuvres with the arquebus are borrowed from engravings of drill movements taken from Jacob de Gheyn
's Exercise of Arms
, first published in the Netherlands in 1607.
What is a Correspondence? [+]
We will say that two works of art form a correspondence if one of them is the basis, the model, or the prototype for the other. Most of the correspondences in this project will consist of a European engraving and a Spanish Colonial painting. Some may consist, however of two engravings, two paintings, two carvings. Or, indeed, of any two thereof. The two members of the correspondence may be European. Or they may be Spanish Colonial. The only critical condition for placing them in correspondence is that one of them serve as a source for the other.
- - -
Positing a correspondence between two images is the most elegant explanation of the covariation of their coincidences. This is the most compelling reason for proposing a correspondence. But positing a correspondence is always subject to revision. It is a claim that stands or falls on the accumulated coincidences it is based on.
USA Eclipse Bonanza
On average, though, any given spot on the Earth's surface will see a total eclipse of the Sun once every 360 years or so. So seeing two total eclipses of the Sun at the same spot in just 7 years would be fairly remarkable -- and seeing four total eclipses over a small region of the Earth in just 35 years would be incredible. However, that's exactly what's going to happen in the middle of the United States in the next 50 years
21-Aug-17 Total Solar Eclipse @ 18:30:060945UT
170821 Sun 28 le 52'56.0191 0.9635862 11°51'39.0537
170821 Moon 28 le 52'56.0191 14.0383347 12°15'49.9548
John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion
There was a long tradition of speculation in theology, metaphysics, and epistemology in which light served metaphorical and symbolic functions, deriving ultimately from Platonic and Neoplatonic sources and often referred to as light metaphysics. In the texts that Dee used, however, light is not a metaphor or a symbol but a visible manifestation of the radiation of natural powers. For these authors optics was clearly associated with astrology because optical phenomena were considered the model or prototype of physical causality. These ideas supplied Dee both with a concrete mechanism of astrological influence and with a rationale for applying mathematics to the study of physics, enabling him to place astrology on what he considered was a scientific basis and to establish his credentials as a natural philosopher.
The medieval tradition of optically based natural philosophy began with al-Kindī (d. ca. 873), who continued the Neoplatonic view of being as a hierarchy of perfection produced by emanation from the One analogous to the radiation of light, but, unlike Neoplatonic light metaphysics, he considered radiating light as corporeal. On this foundation al-Kindī's De radiis
, or Theorica artium magiacarum
, presents a natural philosophy in which astrological and magical effects are explained through the action of astral and other forces propagated as rays. Dee's dependence on the De radiis
was very close, including the borrowing of specific language. According to al-Kindī, the proper natures and conditions of the stars are projected by rays emitted by the stars, the rays of each star differing from those of other stars in their nature and effects as the natures of the stars differ from one another. All terrestrial events derive from the total harmony of the heavens, since the rays of all stars fill the universe and fall ubiquitously upon the earth. All local events have their own individuality, however, because the totality of celestial influences will differ in particular instances according to the changing aspects of the heavens and the differing passive tendencies of the material affected. Differences in the strength of different rays were recognized by al-Kindī, hence rays that fall directly from the center of a star to the center of the earth are stronger than those that fall obliquely, as are those from a source close to the object affected. These differences in the force of various rays are a common sense assumption for al-Kindī, however, and are neither based upon a mathematical theory nor subject to mathematical treatment. Dee's conception of the nature and operation of astral influences as stellar rays were quite dependent upon some of the formulations that he found in al-Kindī's treatise, but these were only contributory elements to his theory of astrology. In Dee's theory, stellar rays are subject to geometric treatment because they are an aspect of a general cosmology in which an essential light is the formative and structural principle of the universe—a cosmology most explicitly developed by Robert Grosseteste.
John Dee's knowledge of Robert Grosseteste (1168/70–1253) was limited to what he was able to find in a few of the short works that Grosseteste devoted to a natural philosophy based upon optical principles. From the ideas presented in the Propaedeumata
, what Dee seems to have found in those works was the idea of a physics, in which light is the fundamental causal principle, that provided him with the key for the development of an astrological physics.