northanger (northanger) wrote,
northanger
northanger

Baghdad Battery


In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. Batteries consist of electrochemical devices such as one or more galvanic cells, fuel cells or flow cells. The earliest known artifacts that may have been batteries are the Baghdad Batteries, from some time between 250 BC and 640 AD. The modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic pile, announced by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800[1]. The worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales annually (2005 estimate). [+]


Apparent short-circuit in LM electrical system, accompanied by a “thump" in vicinity of descent stage and observation of venting for several minutes in area of LM descent batteries #1 and #2. [+]

How much power do we have to play with?

Barely enough to run this coffee pot for nine hours.
[+]

In April 1970, the lunar module Aquarius played an unexpected role in saving the lives of the three astronauts of the Apollo 13 mission (Commander James A. Lovell Jr., CSM pilot John L. Swigert Jr., and LM pilot Fred W. Haise Jr.), after an electrical short circuit caused an oxygen tank in that mission's service module to explode. Aquarius served as a refuge for the astronauts during their return to Earth, while its batteries were used to recharge the vital re-entry batteries of the command module [Odyssey] that brought the astronauts through the Earth's atmosphere and to a safe splashdown on April 17, 1970. The LM's descent engine, designed to slow the vehicle during its descent to the moon, was used to accelerate the Apollo 13 spacecraft around the moon and back to Earth. After the accident, the LM's systems, designed to support two astronauts for 45 hours, actually supported three astronauts for 90 hours. [+]

Power was also a concern. There were 2,181 ampere hours in the LM batteries, Ground controllers carefully worked out a procedure where the CM batteries were charged with LM power. All non-critical systems were turned off and energy consumption was reduced to a fifth of normal, which resulted in having 20 percent of our LM electrical power left when Aquarius was jettisoned. There was one electrical close call during the mission. One of the CM batteries vented with such force that it momentarily dropped off the line. Had the battery failed, there would be insufficient power to return the ship to Earth. [+]

Among the first actions taken were shutting down one fuel cell and switching off nonessential systems in the CM to minimize power consumption; shortly after, the second fuel cell was shut down as well. When the remaining oxygen ran out, the CM would be dead; its only other power source was three reentry batteries providing 120 ampere-hours, and these had to be reserved for the critical reentry period [...] In all these preparations the power available from the CM's reentry batteries was a limiting factor. From the PC + 2 burn until about 35 hours before reentry the sequence of activation of CM systems was worked out, checked in the simulators, and modified. Fifteen hours before beginning reentry the revised sequence of activities was read to the crew, to give them time to review and practice it. The husbanding of expendable resources, particularly electrical power, paid off on the morning of landing, when it was discovered that power reserves in the LM were adequate to allow use of it in the CM. Some of the early CM activities could then be done at a less hurried pace. The Apollo 13 command module splashed down within a mile of the recovery carrier with about 20 percent of its battery power remaining. Three weary, chilled astronauts came aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima on April 17 and were flown to Hawaii for an emotional reunion with their families. [+]

Aaron was off duty when the Apollo 13 explosion occurred, but was quickly called to Mission Control to assist in the rescue and recovery effort. Flight Director Gene Kranz put Aaron in charge of the Command Module's power supply. He was in charge of rationing the spacecraft's power during the return flight. He is also credited with developing the innovative power up sequence that allowed the Command Module to reenter safely while running on very limited battery power. Going against existing NASA procedures, he ordered the instrumentation system to be turned on last, just before reentry, rather than first. The call was a calculated risk. Without the instrumentation system, the crew and controllers would not know for certain if the cold startup had been successful until the last possible moment before reentry. However without this sequence change, the capsule would have exhausted its battery supply before splashdown. [+]


I've just realized a major problem we have is that people don't seem to know the difference between personal and collective intent.

To me, personal intent involves my position within the game while collective intent involves determining the nature of the game. What crosses people up is that you can use collective forces to achieve your personal intent or act personally to achieve a collective effect.. For example, take one jackleg preacher. This is a person who manipulates the common need for spiritual practice for his personal benefit. The classic alternate example is the Brown vs. Board of Ed. It didn't so much change people's immediate position in the game as it changed the rules by which the game was played to allow better possible outcomes.

People who manipulate collective issues for personal benefit are usually evil. People who do not recognize collective issues while pursuing their personal benefit are usually victims. [+]

what do scientists say to themselves every morning?

As one thought lead to another, I came up with a way of describing science in terms of a board game. I figured that if scientists can be cast as people engaged in an intellectually stimulating variation of Othello, then maybe they'd seem less threatening, and maybe their method would be easier to understand.

The rules of this game are straightforward, and go as follows.
  1. The object of the game is to get to the other side of the game board.
  2. The game board is divided into squares, but you're not told how many squares wide or long it is.
  3. You can only step on a square if it has a tile on it. You can step on any tile, even if it was made by another player.
  4. If you step on an empty square, or the tile you're standing on breaks, then you "fall in" and have to swim back to the nearest tile.
  5. Each empty square that either borders a tile or the starting edge of the game board has a question visible on it. The questions are very simple and have single answers, such as "why does water flow downhill?" or "why can light pass through glass?" or "what is heat?"
  6. The only way to make new tiles is by making-up an answer to the question.
  7. A tile will only float if you can verify the answer with a reproducible test.
  8. A tile can only be broken by proving the answer is wrong with a reproducible test.
  9. A test can't break a tile if its results can't be reproduced, a tile can't float if the verifying test's results can't be reproduced.
  10. If a tile is broken, then all tiles ahead of it that cannot be connected back to the starting edge by another continuous series of tiles will be broken as well.
  11. A player is defined as someone who obeys the rules. If you stop obeying the rules you cease to be a player until you start obeying the rules again.
.....
You can go by whatever route you like to invent answers to the questions found on empty squares, since the game doesn't care where they came from, only if they can be tested. Walking around in circles rubbing your knuckles into your forehead is a valid source of inspiration. So is getting drunk and spouting nonsense until you accidentally stumble onto something consistent. So is heading to a titty bar and taking your mind off science by drawing the girls (this was actually one of Feynman's favorite methods, and after he got good at drawing nudes he started drawing the expressions on other customers' faces). Some have developed a technique where they guess what the questions might be on squares they haven't seen yet, even stretching all the way to the hypothetical far-end of the game board. Whatever works, works, and the game only cares if you can test what you come up with. [+]

GON 0 = INTER-CROSS.

GON 86 = VICTORIAN STAGE MAGICAL TERMINOLOGY = [14-Jan|09:22am] SIXTH REIFICATION OF A CHAOS LORD.

GON 21 = REVEAL EIGHTY-SIX = 33-RAYED STAR = AUTHOR'S ALTERATION = ELECTROSTIMULATION = PRESTIGE OIL SPILL = TAQ-I-KISRA (Arch of Ctesiphon).

GON 44 = THE PLEDGE = CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) = MAXIMALLY VULNERABLE = [14-Jan|07:23am] CLEW THE SIGNAL = BACKGROUND = SAFE MODE.

GON -8 = THE TURN (also fourth face-up community card in poker) = CROSSOVER = WORDLIST.

GON 8 = OIL SPILL = PRESTIGES.

GON 22 = THE PRESTIGE = ACTION = VACH.

{44 - 8 + 22} = 99 MAGIC SQUARE = THE FUTURE DESIGNATED BY THE "UNLESS".

GON -6 = "UNLESS" = DUMP SURGE WORDLIST = LETTER X || GON 6 = OIL = QUARTERMASTER.

{44 + 22} = BUT NOTHING GETS YOU NOTHING, EVERYTHING HAS GOT A LITTLE PRICE ("Master of the House", Les Misérables) = CRIKEY!, I HAVE AN URGE TO DRAW ... CARTOONS! = HARDWIRED IN THE MIND = NEQUE MOLA, NEQUE FARINA (neither the millstone nor the flour) = TANGLED HIERARCHY = [14-Jan|03:39am] OPPORTUNITY ADDED TO NORTHANGER'S ADDRESS BOOK.

{44 + 8 + 22} = 1ST BRIGADE, 101ST AIRBORNE DIVISION = CAPITAL'S SLIDE INTO CHAOS = NOT LOOKING FOR SOME BIG OLD BOUNCE (CNN Transcripts, Candy Crowley) = RADIONIC DEVICE TUNED TO.

GON 91 = VACH FAMILY CREST AND NAME (Motto: We exceed our reputation by deeds) = DIVIDE, ADD, MULTIPLY, AND UNDERSTAND (Liber AL I:25) = SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN = THE PERFECT AND THE PERFECT (Liber AL I:45).

GON 68 = FAMAM EXTENDIMUS FACTIS (We Spread Our Fame by Our Deeds; Motto of QMCS) = CHEMICAL ENERGY.

GON 61 = WE EXCEED OUR REPUTATION BY DEEDS = DENDERA LIGHT = FIRE-GILDED.

GON 24 = GILD = DECUSSATION = PRESTIGE FORMAT.

GON 62 = WE SPREAD OUR FAME BY OUR DEEDS = A PLANGENT REMINDER.

GON 23 = PLANGENT = AGENT = THE PRESTIGE REPUTATION = THE SECRET.

GON 31 = PLEDGE-TURN-PRESTIGE = CENTRIPETAL || GON -31 = YOU KNOW WHO YOU ARE = SURVEYOR (Mars Global Surveyor).

GON 45 = PLEDGE-TURN-PRESTIGE-SECRET = ELECTROLYTIC CELL = [14-Jan|09:22am] A PLACE TO PUT YOUR COFFEE (George Lucas @ Asia) = REIFICATION.

GON 90 = SHADY CHARACTERS AROUND THE PRESTIGE = ELECTROCHEMICAL COUPLE.

GON 11 = COPPER+IRON = STARTING-POINT FOR THE WHOLE WESTERN WORLD.

GON -11 = QUINCUNX.

[14-Jan|03:33am]

GON 34 = VICTORIA CRATER (Wikipedia Featured Pic for 14-Jan-2007) = ACTS OF THE APOSTLES (AA) = ARC LIGHT = ATOMIC ABSORPTION (AA).

GON 139 = VERIFY INCOMING NASA MER-B PING (BANDAID) = LOGICAL AND FACTUAL ENCHAINMENTS.

GON 115 = DEALER DEALS SUBDECADANCE QUEENS TO OPPORTUNITY = REWIRE BLACK SPADES + RED DIAMONDS = [14-Jan|05:30am] INKPOT#82 CLASSICAL MUSIC REVIEWS: JOHN WILLIAMS THE PHANTOM MENACE OST (SONY).

[14-Jan|07:20am] GON 9 = INKPOT#82 = CROSSROADS = DOOM = MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR (MGS) = THESEUS'S CLEW (Consider, for example, the mythological Greek hero Theseus. Theseus navigated through the Minotaur's maze with a clew, a ball of yarn. The clew gave him the ability to trace back to his starting point. Without it he'd have wandered the maze forever. That's the key to any iterative solution: you're able to return to some point of departure and try another way. But when the initial choice precludes returning to the starting point, i.e. the decision has consequences, you can't just try another way. When you've chosen the second branch, the only way out of the maze was through the first branch, and the first branch is no longer accessible to you, you're stuck. There may no longer be a solution. —The Glittering Eye).

GON -9 = FUTURE WORLD = SHOWDOWN.

GON 13 = CLEW = JUMPSTART MGS SIGNAL = LOGISTICS = PRESTIGE.

GON 102 = JUMPSTART THE ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION (Baghdad Battery) = DECODE ANI INCOMING STREAM = ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL.

GON -12 = JUMPSTART || GON 12 = NUMBER 10.

GON 46 = JUMPSTART ANI'S RADIO SIGNAL = ADVERSE ACTION (AA) = ARCTIC BLAST = ELECTROPLATED.

GON 60 = ELECTROPLATED REFLECTIVITY (MGS) = TAKE THIS AS NOTIFICATION = THE WHITE PALACE (Ctesiphon).

GON 48 = RED DIAMONDS = MAKTUB PLAYS QUEEN OF SPADES .

GON 61 = BLACK SPADES = MAKTUB PLAYS QUEEN OF DIAMONDS .

GON -35 = OPPORTUNITY (Mars Exploration Rover, MER-B) || GON 35 = MAKTUB QUEENS REWIRED.

[14-Jan|03:42am]

GON 36 = MER-B CAN YOU PING MGS? = COLLECTIVE INTENT = ELECTROPLATE = GILDING = KITEMARKING = SHÂHIGÂN-Ǐ-SEPID (the white palace).

GON 40 = KITEMARKING THE WEST WIND = DYNAMIC TRANSLATION.

GON 55 = MER-B, TRIANGULATE TRANSLATION = 69 MAGIC SQUARE = CONCENTRATION CELL = FACE-UP COMMUNITY CARD = THE COLLECTIVE THING.

GON 18 = MER-B ("Opportunity", Mars Exploration Rover) = SLEIGHT = FIFTH STREET (River Card).

GON -2 = RIVER (Fifth face-up community card in poker).

GON 2 = CSR (corporate social responsibility) = INTENT =MARS EXPLORATION ROVER MISSION = SPILL.

GON 7 = THE RIVER (Fifth face-up community card in poker) = BATTERY = FLOP = KHUJUT RABU.

GON -7 = SPIRIT (Mars Exploration Rover, MER-A) = DUMP CURRENT WORDLIST = FUTURE.

GON 17 = RIVERED ("River" is fifth face-up community card in poker) = CTESIPHON || GON -17 = TURN (Fourth face-up community card in poker).

GON 19 = MER-A ("Spirit", Mars Exploration Rover) = LIVING BY THE RIVER.

GON 28 = RIVER CARD (Fifth face-up community card in poker) = TEN O'CLOCK (see Victoria Crater) = ELECTROWINNING.

GON 33 = DOWNED AT THE RIVER = AA BATTERY = ARE YOU WATCHING CLOSELY? = BYTECODE.

GON 104 = CHANGE THE FORTUNE OF A GAME (River) = HOW MIGHTY IS THE HAND THAT CAN TURN A PAGE OF HISTORY, LORD GOD (Rev. Daniel Coughlin, House Chaplain) = DON'T MISS OUT! SAVE THE DATE DECEMBER 16TH AT 5PM! (cf, STS-116 & something else).

[14-Jan|04:08am]

GON 168 = DEALER DEALS SUBDECADANCE QUEENS TO ANI = DEALER DEALS SUBDECADANCE QUEENS TO MER-B.

GON 49 = DUEL OF THE FATES (Track #2, Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Soundtrack) = LIGHTNESS OF HAND.

[14-Jan|05:00am]

GON 30 = SHIT. VICTORIAN ... VICTORIA = A LIGHT TOUCH = GAME = MISDIRECTION.

GON 63 = I'M NOT MAKING THIS UP Y'KNOW. CAN'T I FIND SOMETHING ... IMPORTANT? = PERSONAL OR COLLECTIVE ACTION?.

[14-Jan|05:39am]

AQ 1243 = UNDER THE TONGUE ROOT A FIGHT MOST DREAD, AND ANOTHER RAGING, BEHIND, IN THE HEAD (Duel of the Fates) = SCIENTIFIC METHOD: OBSERVATION, HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIMENT, CONFIRMATION.

[14-Jan|07:09am]

GON 29 = MINI-SEQUENCES = DECUSSATE = GOVERNMENT IS IN A FUNK = MY POSITION IN THE GAME = PRESTIDIGITATION.

GON 52 = ANI'S POSITION IN THE GAME = IN LARGER HANDS (Duel of the Fates) = DEGRADING MEMORY.

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