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Asteroid #-12774-PFUND

{#12774-PFUND} discovered 12-Aug-1994 by Belgian astronomer Eric W. Elst, named for American physicist & spectroscopist August Herman Pfund. Elst also discovered #4486-MITHRA, 133P/Elst-Pizarro & 25+ Trojans; asteroid #3936-ELST named in his honour.

{History of the Los Angeles Lakers} assistant coach Randy Pfund promoted to coach during 1992–93 season.

{August Herman Pfund} (December 28, 1879 – January 4, 1949), American physicist and spectroscopist. Born Madison, Wisconsin. Discovered the hydrogen Pfund lines, where an electron jumps up from or drops down to the fifth fundamental level. A pfund is also a unit of mass measurement equal to 500 grams. 100 pfund = 1 zentner.

{Category:Spectroscopy}

{Frequency spectrum} Familiar concepts associated with a frequency are colors, musical notes, radio/TV channels, and even the regular rotation of the earth. A source of light can have many colors mixed together and in different amounts (intensities). A rainbow, or prism, sends the different frequencies in different directions, making them individually visible at different angles. A graph of the intensity plotted against the frequency (showing the amount of each color) is the frequency spectrum of the light.

{Spectroscopy} the study of spectra {see: frequency spectrum}, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. Spectroscopy is often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances, through the spectrum emitted or absorbed. A device for recording a spectrum is a spectrometer. Spectroscopy can be classified according to the physical quantity which is measured or calculated or the measurement process. Spectroscopy is also heavily used in astronomy. Most large telescopes have spectrographs, which are used either to measure the chemical composition and physical properties of astronomical objects or to measure their velocities from the Doppler shift of spectral lines.

{Mauricio Seracini} This drew novelist Dan Brown to include Seracini as the only living, real person in The DaVinci Code, since the premise of the book is that DaVinci's works contain hidden messages revealing that Jesus married Mary Magdalene and had a family, the descendants of which are alive today. What makes Seracini's work so fascinating is that he has found discrepancies between the original underlying sketch for Adoration of the Magi and the finished painting, giving some theorists tantalizing evidence to support their theories that at some level DaVinci's messages were subverted.

{Pfund series} In physics, the Pfund series is a series of absorption or emission lines of atomic hydrogen. The lines correspond to the electron jumping between the fifth and higher energy levels of the hydrogen atom.

{Hydrogen spectral series} In physics, the spectral lines of hydrogen correspond to particular jumps of the electron between energy levels. The simplest model of the hydrogen atom is given by the Bohr model. When an electron jumps from a higher energy to a lower, a photon of a specific wavelength is emitted according to the Rydberg formula ... The spectral lines are grouped into series according to n': 1-Lyman, 2-Balmer, 3-Paschen, 4-Brackett & 5-Pfund.

{Rydberg formula} (Rydberg-Ritz formula) is used in atomic physics for determining the full spectrum of light emission from hydrogen, later extended to be useful with any element. The spectrum is the set of wavelengths of photons emitted when electrons jump between discrete energy levels, "shells" around the atom of a certain chemical element. This discovery was later to provide motivation for the creation of quantum physics ... The Lyman series is in the ultraviolet while the Balmer series is in the visible and the Paschen, Brackett, Pfund, and Humphreys series are in the infrared.

{Richard Threlkeld Cox} (1898 - May 2, 1991) was a professor of physics at Johns Hopkins University, known for Cox's theorem relating to the foundations of probability. He earned his PhD in 1924; his thesis was "A Study of Pfund's Pressure Gauge".

{Cox's theorem} Cox wanted his system to satisfy the following desiderata: {1} Divisibility and comparability - The plausibility of a statement is a real number and is dependent on information we have related to the statement; {2} Common sense - Plausibilities should vary sensibly with the assessment of plausibilities in the model & {3} Consistency - If the plausibility of a statement can be derived in many ways, all the results must be equal. The postulates as stated here are taken from Arnborg and Sjödin (1999). "Common sense" includes consistency with Aristotelian logic when statements are completely plausible or implausible.

{Vereinsthaler} ("union thaler") was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the years prior to German unification. The Vereinsthaler was introduced in 1857 to replace the previous standard Thaler which was very slightly heavier. Whilst the earlier Thaler had contained one fourteenth of a Cologne mark of silver (16.704 grams), the Vereinsthaler contained 16 2/3 grams of silver, which was indicated on the coins as one thirtieth of a pound (pfund, equal to 500 grams).

{Linguistic issues concerning the euro} Several linguistic issues have resulted from the inclusion of the new word euro into the vocabularies of the languages of the member states of the European Union. Some countries have also produced local slang words for the euro. German (Plural) : Euro and Cent are used as both singular and plural when following a numeral, as is the case with all units of measurement (e.g. Pfund, Kilo(gramm), Dollar, etc.).

pfund (pfd) :: a traditional German weight unit corresponding to the English pound (see below). The pfund is equal to 16 unze or 32 lot. Traditionally the pfund varied in size from market to market, and the various German states adopted different standards, ranging from something close to the English pound (454 grams) to the Viennese pfund at about 1.2 pounds (560 grams). When Germany was unified in the late nineteenth century, the pfund was redefined as a metric unit equal to exactly 500 grams (about 1.102 31 pound). There's no change in the plural.

...older people in Germany refer to a Pfund when buying half a kilogram of some bulk product, a Pfund being an old measure equivalent to the English pound (Going Metric).

{Swiss franc} currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Franc banknotes are issued by the central bank of Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank, while coins are issued by the federal mint, Swissmint ... Banknotes: The current (8th, 1995) series of banknotes designed by Jörg Zintzmeyer ... The previous series (6th, 1976) designed by Ernst and Ursula Hiestand depicted: Leonhard Euler (10 francs), Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (20 francs), Conrad Gessner (50 francs), Francesco Borromini (100 francs), Albrecht von Haller (500 francs), Auguste Forel (1000 francs) ... The sixth series has been recalled and replaced. The seventh series was printed, but is kept as a "reserve series", ready to be used if, for example, wide counterfeiting of the current series suddenly happened.

{List of Swiss people} Roger Pfund (born 1943), painter, graphic designer

{Zentner} unit of mass measurement used predominantly in Germany and Switzerland although it is also sometimes used in Great Britain; for example, as a measure of the weight of certain crops including hops for beer production ... The name "pfund" - the English word pound comes herefrom - shows the historical dimenson of this unit: One Pound Sterling means 500 g Sterling silver, in old times the value of one coin of the Bitish currency. [see: Cycle #15 Notes]

{Metrication} Conversion process : There are three common routes that nations take in converting from traditional measurement systems to the metric system. The first is a quick, so called "Big-bang" route which was used by India in the early 1960s and several other developing nations since then. The second two routes are both variations on the slower phase-in route that tends to be favoured by industrial nations ... A final possibility is to redefine traditional units in terms of metric values. These redefined units often stay in use long after metrication is said to have been completed. China followed this route, and thus while scientists in China know and use the kilogram, common people retain the jin, which now has a value of 500 g. (This route was once proposed for England with the pound to be redefined as 500 g, but the plan did not receive government support.) In the Netherlands, 500 g is informally referred to as a pond (pound) and 100 g as an ons (ounce), and in Germany and France 500 g is informally referred to respectively as ein Pfund and une livre (one pound). In Denmark, the re-defined pund (500 g) is occasionally used, particularly among older people and (older) fruit growers, since these were originally paid according to the number of pounds of fruit produced.

{Texas German} dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who founded the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in 1846 ... isolated themselves from other Texas settlers by refusing to learn English ... The dialect is near extinction, as it is now only spoken by a few elderly people. Texas German is legible to anyone with an understanding of continental German, though it adapted to U.S. measurement and legal terminologies, e.g., Pfund; Fuß; Meil; County not Grafschaft; Scheriff not Vogt, etc.

Tags: libra, pfund, pound, spectroscopy
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