northanger (northanger) wrote,

Asteroid #1345-POTOMAC

some more interesting history bits with this asteroid. Potomac river probably named after Patawomeck tribe of Virginia; Chief Robert "Two Eagles" Green is responsible for regenerating the tribe & hopes to have the tribe legally recognized. Green & his son appear in Terrence Malick's new movie, The New World (wiki-link) & Green was a technical adviser. Malick is donating a percentage of the movie's profits to the nine tribes of Virginia.

Potomac River

The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA) ... n terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the USA and the 21st largest in the USA.
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The river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D.C. (the District of Columbia) on the left bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right bank. The entire lower Potomac River is considered part of Maryland, with the exception of a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia. The North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank. The South Branch Potomac River lies completely within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters which lie in Virginia.
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Early pioneer sources claim that the indigenous Native Americans of the region referred to the South Branch Potomac River as the Wappatomaka. Other variants of this name throughout the river's history were South Branch of Potowmac River, South Branch of the Potowmac River, South Fork Potomac River, Wapacomo River, Wapocomo River, Wappacoma River, Wappatomaka River, and Wappatomica River.
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The name Potomac is a European spelling of an Algonquin name which supposedly means "river of swans." Other accounts say the name means "place where people trade" or "the place to which tribute is brought" and that the name translated as "river of swans" was another word, Cohongorooton. The spelling of the name has been simplified over the years from Patawomeke to Patowmack in the 18th century and now Potomac. The river's name was officially decided upon as Potomac by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931.

Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, surveyed, and spent most of his life within the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D.C., the nation's capital city, also lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries. General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D.C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg.

Potomac River

Variant Name(s): Pataromerke River, Patawmack River, Patawomeck River, Patawomecke River, Patawomek River, Patawomeke River, Patomack River, Patomacke River, Patomak River, Patomake River, etc.

Chief Powhatan

Chief Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsunacock or Wahunsenacawh, was the leader of the Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten), a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in Tenakomakah, what is now Virginia at the time of the first English-Native encounters. He was the father of Princess Pocahontas ... Powhatan was originally the name of the town that he came from, as well as the river it sat on (today called the James). When he created a powerful empire by conquering most of tidewater Virginia, he called himself the Powhatan, often taken as his given name, but actually a title, translated variously as 'Chief', 'King' or 'Emperor'.

The Mariner's Museum: Native Americans

The Native American group in the Chesapeake region, known collectively as the Powhatans, left no written records of what their life was like before the Europeans visited them. It is only through archaeology and the writings of men like Captain John Smith, William Strachey, Thomas Hariot, Henry Spelman, Gabriel Archer, and others that we can glean how the Powhatans may have lived. The name "Powhatans" has been applied to all of the Algonquian-speaking Indians in Tidewater Virginia. In the decade before English settlement, Chief Powhatan, also known as Wahunsonacock, inherited six to nine tribes, which included the Powhatans, Pamunkeys, Mattaponis, Arrohastecks, Appomatucks, and Youghtamunds. He also united other tribes, either by conquest or threat of conquest, and formed a confederacy. The tribes of the confederacy provided military support and paid taxes in the form of food, pelts, copper, or pearls.

How was Pocahontas kidnapped?

In 1613, Samuel Argall enlisted the aid of Iopassus, the lesser weroance of Patawomeck, to help capture Pocahontas. Iopassus convinced his brother that it was in their best interest to help Argall in his plan in order to preserve the friendship of the English. Pocahontas accompanied a wife of Iopassus to see Argall's ship. After all were on board, Pocahontas was the only one not permitted to leave.

The Story of Pocahantas

By the aid of Japazeus, King of Pasptancy, an old acquaintance and friend of Argall's, and the connivance of the King of Potowomek, Pocahontas was enticed on board Argall's ship and secured. Word was sent to Powhatan of the capture and the terms on which his daughter would be released; namely, the return of the white men he held in slavery, the tools and arms he had gotten and stolen, and a great quantity of corn. Powhatan, "much grieved," replied that if Argall would use his daughter well, and bring the ship into his river and release her, he would accede to all his demands. Therefore, on the 13th of April, Argall repaired to Governor Gates at Jamestown, and delivered his prisoner, and a few days after the King sent home some of the white captives, three pieces, one broad-axe, a long whip-saw, and a canoe of corn. Pocahontas, however, was kept at Jamestown.

A Patawomeck named Wahanganoche in Va.

Patawomeck Indians lived in Stafford, King George, and even possibly Prince William counties in Virginia. At the time of English settlement, they were led by Japazaws (or Iopassas), who may have been the father of Wahonganoche. We do not know a wife's name, and probably never will. We do know the descendants of Keziah Arroyah and many of them are current members of the newly re-formed Patawomeck Indians of Virginia.

Stafford, Virginia

Founded in 1664, Stafford has strong connections to events that shaped our nation's history. It was here, at Marlborough Point in the eastern part of the county, that Indian Princess Pocahontas was kidnapped and taken to Jamestown. Another historical figure also made Stafford his home. The county's prosperous iron industry attracted Augustine Washington, with the rest of his family, including a six-year-old son named George, to Ferry Farm. The future first president spent his formative years there until he reached young adulthood. Mining and quarrying were important industries in colonial Stafford. Iron works furnished arms for the American Revolution. Aquia sandstone, quarried in abundance on Government Island in northern Stafford, provided stone for the White House, the U.S. Capitol and trim for private homes.

The Native Americans of Maryland

Archihu, chief of the Potomac Indians, welcomed the colonists with open arms in 1634: "We will eat at the same table; my followers will too go to hunt for you; and we will have all things in common." [1] Though the Native Americans' greeting was warm and peaceful, King Charles I stated in the Maryland Charter that the Indians were to be eliminated. [2] His colonization of Maryland led to the dissipation of tribes and loss of Native American heritage. The Native Americans helped the colonists estbalish a strong economy and thriving culture for Maryland, yet their way of life was destroyed by the colonists.

Drive Through Stafford County's History

The original residents of the Marlborough Point area were the Patawomeck Indians. There were at least 10 villages, each consisting of 2 to 100 long houses. It was here that Pocahontas was kidnapped and taken to Jamestown.

Treasures turn up in Stafford

A number of Marlborough Point properties sit atop documented American Indian burial sites that could be disturbed by unauthorized digging, said Hal Wiggins, an environmental scientist in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Fredericksburg field office.
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The narrow arm of land between the Potomac River and Accokeek and Potomac creeks has significance in three different time periods: American Indian settlement, the creation of the town of Marlborough and the Civil War. According to legend, it was near Marlborough Point where English explorer John Smith was captured by the Powhatan Indian tribe. As many history books tell, Pocahontas rescued Smith from death at the hands of her father, Chief Powhatan.

The Anglo-Powhatan Wars

Powhatan had corn to trade (as well as furs and information), and he carefully orchestrated his meetings with the English to establish his authority and to gain tactical advantages during negotiations. At times the English evaded his constraints and traded for corn with those towns willing to risk Powhatan's displeasure. The edges of his authority were mapped by John Smith as he explored the Potomac River in 1608, and the Europeans understood the limits of Powhatan's power. The somewhat-independent Potomacks were easily accessible to the early English settlers, who could sail up the Potomac River and bypass Powhatan's land forces north of Jamestown.

Trade with the Potowomacks, at the mouth of Potomac Creek in today's Stafford County, helped the English to evade Chief Powhatan's efforts to starve the Europeans. One leader of the Potowomacks even went to far as to seize Powhatan's daughter when she was there on a "state visit." He traded pocahontas to an English sea captain for a copper kettle, and she became a pawn in peace negotiations.

Powhatan Confederacy

group of Native North Americans belonging to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Their area embraced most of tidewater Virginia and the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Wahunsonacock, or Powhatan, as the English called him, was the leader of the confederacy when Jamestown was settled in 1607. The Powhatan are said to have been driven N to Virginia by the Spanish, where their chief, Powhatan’s father, subjugated five other Virginia tribes. With Powhatan’s own conquests, the empire included, among some 30 peoples, the Pamunkey, Mattapony, Chickahominy, and others likewise commemorated in the names of the streams and rivers of E Virginia. They were a sedentary people, with some 200 settlements, many of them protected by palisades when the English arrived.
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On Powhatan’s death in 1618, Opechancanough, chief of the Pamunkey, became the central power in the confederacy, and he organized the general attack (1622) in which some 350 settlers were killed. English reprisals were equally violent, but there was no further fighting on a large scale until 1644, when Opechancanough led the last uprising, in which he was captured and murdered at Jamestown. In 1646 the confederacy yielded much of its territory, and beginning in 1665 its chiefs were appointed by the governor of Virginia. After the Iroquois, traditional enemies of the confederacy, agreed to cease their attacks in the Treaty of Albany (1722), the tribes scattered, mixed with the settlers, and all semblance of the confederacy disappeared. In 1990 there were about 800 Powhatan in the United States, most of them in E Virginia.

The First Act of Terrorism in English America

Edward Waterhouse’s shocking report to other horrified Londoners referred to the first massive terrorist attack against English-speaking civilians in American history. The “Barbarous Massacre” on Friday, 22 March 1622, was the most lethal day ever experienced by British colonists in peacetime, as Powhatan warriors slaughtered almost 30 percent of Virginia’s entire white population, including at least 35 women and 30 children; destroyed many buildings and other property; and threatened the survival of England’s embryonic empire on this continent.
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Despite the current preoccupation with terrorism, scholars have shown little curiosity about its historical origins in America before the 19th century and remain squeamish about studying violence of any kind. Many scrupulously avoid terms such as “massacre” and “terrorism” because of their association with Eurocentric biases. When I coined the widely accepted label “Powhatan Uprising” thirty years ago, I did not envision how imaginative and erroneous other alternatives to “massacre” would become. Anthropologists, in particular, have run amuck with misleading euphemisms, referring to the massive 1622 attack as a “blow” or a “coup”—everything but what it was according to every definition.

Indians of Southern Maryland

The arrival of the English in Jamestown in 1607 saw the Indians completely change their attitudes toward the Europeans. Open warfare threatened the very existence of the small English colony. These major conflicts were due, in part, to the failure of the Virginia colony to realize the strength of the local Indian confederation, named after their chief, Powhatan. The military effectiveness of the Indians was enhanced by the centralization of their local government. Tribes were united under the leadership of Powhatan who was able to muster an organized and numerically superior military force and thrust it in “hit and run” tactics. It would take almost 50 years for the balance of power to shift in the favor of the Virginians, and this was only accomplished by the massive immigration of men and material to eventually defeat the Indians.

Stories of American Life and Adventure

A White Boy Among the Indians — Among the people that came to Virginia in 1609, two years after the colony was planted, was a boy named Henry Spelman. He was the son of a well-known man. He had been a bad and troublesome boy in England, and his family sent him to Virginia, thinking that he might be better in the new country. At least his friends thought he would not trouble them so much when he was so far away. Many hundreds of people came at the same time that Henry Spelman did. Captain John Smith was then governor of the little colony. He was puzzled to know how to feed all these people. As many of them were troublesome, he was still more puzzled to know how to govern them. In order not to have so many to feed, he sent some of them to live among the Indians here and there. A chief called Little Powhatan asked Smith to send some of his men to live with him. The Indians wanted to get the white men to live among them, so as to learn to make the things that the white men had. Captain Smith agreed to give the boy Henry Spelman to Little Powhatan, if the chief would give him a place to plant a new settlement.

Stafford wedding celebrates culture that was nearly lost

The wedding is based on the diary of English colonist Henry Spelman, who was traded to the Indians for a town site and later lived with the Patawomecks. And while the ceremony itself is documented, the Patawomeck tribe itself would not have been here to take part in the ceremony had it not been for the action of Chief Green in re-establishing it eight years ago. "We wanted to keep our identity from getting lost because everybody was moving away and forgetting the stories that had been passed down - because our tribe is probably the one that saved America. We gave Jamestown the corn when they were starving," said William "Night Owl" Deyo, tribe historian and author of several books. It is their history and culture that is the priority for the 400 descendants living in region around Stafford - with surnames like Newton, Bullock, Green and Jett. Their ancestors manned the northern frontier of the Powhatan empire. This is the tribe that Pocahontas married into before the English came.

Modern Lives Dwell in the Indian Past

Earlier archeological work, in the 1930s, also documented an extensive array of burial plots. Before the houses, 134 bodies were unearthed and taken to the Smithsonian Institution, and that is where a second front has opened in this battle between time and tide: The descendants of the early Indians want the bones back. But Robert Two Eagles Green, chief of the 427-member Patawomeck tribe in the Stafford County area, said the tribe must overcome a legal obstacle before it can make a formal request. Having insufficient records of its history, the tribe has not been recognized by the state, and William & Mary anthropology students are helping in their research efforts. "We want our ancestors to sleep in peace," Green said.

Stafford history goes Hollywood

Patawomeck Indian chief Robert Two Eagles Green says "The New World" story of Pocahontas, which opens in theaters in New York and Los Angeles today, uses some artistic license.
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Green said Pocahontas' mother was a member of the Patawomeck tribe and she had relatives in Stafford. He said her father, Chief Powhatan, had a wife in every village. Pocahontas was taken prisoner by the English Capt. Samuel Argall at Passapatanzy and was held hostage at Jamestown for over a year. Japazaws, the "lower" chief of the Patawomecks, betrayed Pocahontas, tricking her into boarding an English ship in 1613--not for a copper kettle but for protection, Green said. The English had allied themselves with Japazaws and helped provide the Stafford tribe with security, he said. Part of the area in Stafford that had been Patawomeck land is now named for Japazaws. Green, in real life a corporate trainer for an insurance company, plays a Powhatan counselor, and his 26-year-old son Jason also appears in the movie as a Powhatan warrior.
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At a screening Thursday night in Richmond for cast and staff that included many Indians, Sarah Green, the movie's producer, announced that she and Malick have decided to donate 5 percent of their share of the profits to the nine tribes of Virginia. Robert Green expects it to be used to sue for federal recognition of the Virginia tribes. Those tribes are the only ones in the U.S. not eligible for federal programs for Indians. They lack federal benefits and protection because they were forced to sign a treaty before the country was formed.

Tags: american indian, hopi, pocahontas, potomac, powhatan

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