northanger (northanger) wrote,
northanger
northanger

Asteroid #457-ALLEGHENIA

geez. needed a short, two-sentence description about "Allegheny" Indians. not that simple. this meanders through the Allegheny, Monongahela & Ohio rivers, George Washington, the French & Indian Wars, the American Revolution, Adena Culture, giants & mound builders, a Welsh prince named Madoc & an african-american professor named Willie Ruff talking about Gaelic Psalm Singing.

Allegheny River

The Allegheny River (historically, especially in New York state, also spelled Allegany River) is a principal tributary of the Ohio River, which it forms with the Monongahela River at the downtown Pittsburgh's Golden Triangle "point". The river is approximately 325 mi (523 km) long, in the U.S. states of New York and Pennsylvania ... In the 16th century control of the river valley passed back-and-forth between Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and the Iroquois. By the time of the arrival of the French in the early 18th century, the Shawnee were once again in control and formed an alliance with the French against the incursion of British settlement across the Allegheny Mountains. The conflict over the expansion of British settlement into the Allegheny Valley and the surrounding Ohio Country was a primary cause of the French and Indian War in the 1750s. During the war, the village of Kittaning the principal Shawnee settlement on the river, was completely destroyed by British reprisal raids from central Pennsylvania.

Nevertheless, the British, after gaining control of the area in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, kept the area closed to white settlement, in part to repair and maintain relations with the Native Americans. The pressure to open the river valley and the surrounding area to settlement is considered by historians to be one of the root causes of the American Revolutionary War in the following decade.

Brian A. Skiff

Brian A. Skiff is an American astronomer. He has discovered a number of comets, including the periodic comets 114P/Wiseman-Skiff and 140P/Bowell-Skiff. He has discovered a number of asteroids, including the Trojan asteroid (15398) 1997 UZ22. Working on the LONEOS project, he re-discovered the long-lost 69230 Hermes in October 2003 and discovered the Apohele asteroid 2004 JG6 in May 2004. The asteroid 2554 Skiff was named in his honour. Skiff discovered asteroids 3153 Lincoln, 3154 Grant, 3155 Lee, 3325 TARDIS, 5460 Tsenaat'a'i, 5945 Roachapproach, 7863 Turnbull & 10039 Keet Seel.

Allegheny River

A river rising in north-central Pennsylvania and flowing about 523 km (325 mi) northwest into New York then southwest into Pennsylvania again, where it joins the Monongahela River at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River. WORD HISTORY: The Iroquois who inhabited western Pennsylvania considered the Allegheny to be the upper part of the Ohio River. Iroquois Ohio means "beautiful river" (oh–, "river"; –io, "good, fine, beautiful"). When the Delaware, an Algonquian people, moved to western Pennsylvania in the 18th century and displaced the Iroquois, they translated Iroquoian Ohio into Delaware, yielding welhik-heny, "most beautiful stream" (welhik, "most beautiful"; heny, "stream"). The name Welhik-heny was then anglicized as Allegheny.

History of the County of Allegheny

During the decades before and after 1700, the region we know today as Western Pennsylvania and Allegheny County was a vast wilderness inhabited only by wild beasts and wandering bands of Indians, principally the Iroquois, who dominated the other tribes, including the Allegewi, from which the Allegheny River, the Allegheny Mountains and Allegheny County derived their names

Fort Duquesne

Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The point where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers merged to form the Ohio River was long seen as important for controlling the Ohio Country, both for settlement and for trade ... In late autumn 1753, Dinwiddie dispatched a young George Washington to the area, both to conduct surveys and to present a challenge to the French presence. Washington reached Fort Le Boeuf in December and was politely rebuffed by the French. Following Washington's return to Virginia in January 1754, he sent Virginians to build Fort Prince George at the forks. Work began on the fort on February 17 and Washington, who had been promoted to Lt. Colonel, left on April 2 as part of a small force with the dual purpose of constructing a road and defending the fort upon their arrival. By April 18, a much larger French force had forced the English to abandon work on the fort, which was then completed by the French and named it Fort Duquesne in honor of Marquis Duquesne, the governor-general of New France. Washington was at Wills Creek in south central Pennsylvania when he received news of the surrender of Fort Prince George. On May 25, Washington assumed command of the expedition upon the death of Colonel Fry. Two days later, Washington encountered a French scouting party near a place now known as Jumonville Glen (several miles east of present-day Uniontown). Washington attacked the French, some of whom escaped, and then ordered construction of Fort Necessity at a large clearing known as the Great Meadows.

Cherokee History

Other names applied to the Cherokee have been: Allegheny (or Allegewi, Talligewi) (Delaware), Baniatho (Arapaho), Caáxi (or Cayaki) (Osage and Kansa), Chalaque (Spanish), Chilukki (dog people) (Choctaw and Chickasaw), Entarironnen (mountain people) (Huron), Gatohuá (Creek), Kittuwa (or Katowá) (Algonquin), Matera (or Manteran) (coming out of the ground) ( Catawba), Nation du Chien (French), Ochietarironnon (Wyandot), Oyatageronon (or Oyaudah, Uwatayoronon) (cave people) (Iroquois), Shanaki (Caddo), Shannakiak (Fox), Tcaike (Tonkawa), and Tcerokieco (Wichita).

The Lone Wolf Band of Cherokee Indians

Before the nineteenth century, and during the annual Green Corn Festivals, which are held in June, Cherokee story tellers and tribal leaders would gather the people around the fire and speak of the great Cherokee tribal migration. The stories and legends said that the Cherokee originally came from the north. Stories were told of the battles won and battles lost along the way. “The towns of people of many nights encampment removed” (a term depicting one year) was mentioned many times throughout this migration which indicated such a migration took a long time. The stories and legends also told of the lands that were discovered, the strange sights and people that were met were numerous. But somewhere during the 19th. century, for some unknown reason, the history of the Cherokee migration was deleted from orations by the chiefs.
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The Delaware traditions mention a prehistoric migration of the Cherokees. According to the Delawares’ Walum Olum (ancient sticks painted with hieroglyphics of Delaware’s history). According to the Delawares, their first encounter with the Alligewi or Talligewi was when the Delaware were expanding their territories westward from the coastal areas of the United States. It was stated that their advancement was halted by a powerful and tall people, who were occupying the country along what was believed to be Ohio.
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The Alligewi or Talligewi had large earthen forts and fought so well that the Delaware latersought the help of the ‘Mengwe” or Iroquois, which without, the battle would have been lost. With the two tribes joining forces, the Cherokees were conquered and driven southward from the Great Lakes. (Lake Erie and Lake Michigan) beyond the Ohio River. After a war that took many years, the Alligewi were finally defeated and the survivors fled down the river.Having won the land, the Delaware and Iroquois tribes parceled out the lands, most which went to the Delaware, and included the land to the south and east, and the Iroquois choose the land around the Great Lakes. Today’s ethnolists state that “the Cherokees were once a powerful detached tribe of the Iroquoian family” and that they originated in the north, prior to the 1540's. Why the Iroquois fought against the Cherokee, since they were kin, is not known.

In a city-county merger, which name should prevail?

Consider the case for Allegheny. For one thing, it sounds good. It doesn't have the word "pit" in it. It is mellifluous. It rolls off the tongue. For another, it has an ancient lineage. The Allegheny River was named by the Lenni Lenape (or Delaware, as the English called them), whose oral traditions include the story of the Lenape's displacement of an aboriginal tribe known as the Allegewi. As the Lenape (pronounced le-nah-pay) moved eastward centuries ago, they encountered the Allegewi, a tall people with great physical strength living in large towns along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The Lenape asked for and received permission to cross the rivers to move farther east, but when the Allegewi saw their great numbers, they halted the migration.

A long war ensued between the tribes. The Lenape prevailed because they had called on the Mengwe, another western tribe looking for land, for assistance. As the Allegewi migrated south (and later, it is thought, evolved into the Cherokees), the Lenape and Mengwe moved eastward and divided the Allegewi land, with the Lenape claiming the Ohio Valley and the Mengwe inhabiting the Great Lakes region. The Lenape eventually moved farther east and the Mengwe descendants became the Iroquois tribes.

Lenape

The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. The Lenape were the people living in the vicinity of New York Bay and in the Delaware Valley at the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th and 17th century. Their Algonquian language is also known as Lenape or Delaware ... The Delawares feature prominently in The Last of the Mohicans, a novel by James Fenimore Cooper.

Adena Culture

The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from c. 1000 BCE to 100 BCE, in a time known as the Woodland Period. The Adena culture probably refers to a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system ... The Adena lived in a variety of locations, including: Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and parts of Pennsylvania and New York. The Adena culture eventually underwent cultural change, with the new cultural traditions being called the Hopewell culture.

Giants and Ancient North American Warfare

The ancient homeland of the Adena and Hopewell cultures cover five present day states. Were the previous tenants of this region the Allegany People?
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The oldest tribe of the United States, of which there is a distinct tradition, were the Alleghans. The term is perpetuated in the principal chain of mountains traversing the country. This tribe, at an antique period, had the seat of their power in the Ohio valley and its confluent streams, which were the sites of their numerous towns and villages. They appear originally to have borne the name of Alli, or Alleg, and hence the names of Talligewi and Allegewi. By adding to the radical of this word the particle hany or ghany, meaning river, they described the principal scene of their residence namely, the Allegheny, or River of the Alleghans, now called Ohio. The word Ohio is of Iroquois origin, and of a far later period; having been bestowed by them after their conquest of the country, in alliance with the Lenapees, or ancient Delawares. (Phi. Trans.) The term was applied to the entire river, from its confluence with the Mississippi, to its origin in the broad spurs of the Alleghanies, in New York and Pennsylvania; and the designation, to its sources, is still continued in use by that people. {page two}
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Two miles from Mandan, on the bluffs near the junction of the Hart and Missouri Rivers, says the local newspaper, the Pioneer, is an old cemetery of fully 100 acres in extent filled with bones of a giant race. This vast city of the dead lies just east of the Fort Lincoln road. The ground has the appearance of having been filled with trenches piled full of dead bodies, both man and beast, and covered with several feet of earth. In many places mounds from 8 to 10 feet high, and some of them 100 feet or more in length, have been thrown up and are filled with bones, broken pottery, vases of various bright colored flint, and agates. The pottery is of a dark material beautifully decorated, delicate in finish, and as light as wood, showing the work of a people skilled in the arts and possessed of a high state of civilization. This has evidently been a grand battlefield, where thousands of men ... have fallen. Nothing like a systematic or intelligent exploration has been made as only little holes two or three feet in depth have been dug in some of the mounds, but many parts of the anatomy of man and beast, and beautiful specimens of broken pottery and other curiosities, have been found in these feeble efforts at excavation. Five miles above Mandan, on the opposite side of the Missouri, is another vast cemetery as yet unexplored. We asked an aged Indian what his people knew of these ancient graveyards. He answered: "Me know nothing about them. They were here before the redman."

Indian Occupation

Rumors sent in advance reported the country bordering on the river and to the east of it, as inhabited by a people of vast strength, who dwelt in strongly constructed fortifications and entrenchments. A request was made of them that the newcomers might settle in their country. This was refused by the Allegewi, the occupants of the region, but permission was given that the Lenapes and the Mengwe might pass through their country and settle in the country still farther east. Deceived as to the number of emigrants in the eastward-bound body, or else with treachery afore-thought, the Allegewi made a fierce attack upon the Lenapes and slaughtered many of them before the entire tribe had crossed the river. The Mengwe, who had remained neutral during the fight, formed an alliance with their companions, the Lenapes, and waged a fierce and bloody war against the treacherous Allegewi, and drove them from the country. The Allegewi suffered great loss by this war and fled to the country southward. The Lenni Lenapes also lost many warriors in the strife, and claimed that brunt of the battle fell upon them, while the Mengwe hung in the rear. Gradually the now conquering forces worked their way eastward, maintaining friendly companionship, the Mengwe making a choice of the territory bordering on the Great Lakes, while the Lenapes followed the streams running to the eastward and occupied the country from the Hudson River to the Chesapeake Bay, including the shores of the four great rivers--the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, and the Potomac--making the country of the Delaware the chief center of their vast possessions. That portion of the Lenapes that reached and occupied the Atlantic slope, became in time divided into three clans, or smaller tribes, to sit: The Unamis or Turtle tribe, Unalachtgo or Turkey tribe, and the Minsi or Wolf tribe, otherwise known as Monsey or Muncy.
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The Mengwe became in course of time, separated into five distinct tribes, and were severally known as follows: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.

Who Were the Talligewi?

Volumes IV and V of the Leni Lenape chronicle provide the important written evidence which supports the existence of the Talligewi and the great pre-Columbian battle at the falls of the Ohio River where the Talligewi were defeated by a confederation of the Iroquois and Delaware (believed to included the Cayuga, the Onondaga, the Oneida, the Tuscarora and the Cherokee (author's note - some believe the Talligewi were driven south and were the forerunners of the Cherokee). Their accomplished goal was to punish the Talligewi for past wars as well as to drive them out of the sacred hunting grounds known as the Dark and Bloody Ground or Kentucky.
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Some scholars, as well as others having contact with the Native Americans in the eighteenth century, have advanced the theories that the Talligewi have a very unique history in this country. While most Native American Tribes date back to the last ice age when the Bering Sea was frozen over, and they walked or sailed from Siberia and Mongolia into present day Alaska and then spread through the Americas; these people believe the Talligewi are descended from the Welsh Prince Madoc and his crew with the native American population they encountered.

Madoc

Madoc (Madog or Madawg) ap Owain Gwynedd was a Welsh prince who, according to legend, discovered America in 1170, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbus's voyage in 1492. Madoc has been the subject of much historical speculation, but most scholars doubt that Madoc ever made a trip to North America, and some doubt the prince existed at all.
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A number of later travellers claimed to have found the Welsh Indians, and one even claimed the tribe he visited venerated a copy of the Gospel written in Welsh. Stories of Cymric Indians became popular enough that even Lewis and Clark were ordered to look out for them, and folklore has long claimed that Louisville, Kentucky was once home to a colony of Welsh-speaking Indians.
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John Dee went so far as to assert that Brutus of Britain and King Arthur as well as Madoc had conquered lands in the Americas and therefore their heir Elizabeth I of England had a priority claim there.

Black America's musical links to Scotland

ON THE face of it jazz legend Dizzy Gillespie would seem a little out of place on a website devoted to Scottish heritage. With his trademark bent trumpet, he was the epitome of a cool musician at home on stage with 20th century giants of music like Louis Armstrong and Charlie Mingus.

But look at those surnames. Gillespie, Armstrong and Mingus (or Menzies) - all Scots monikers that were probably given to their ancestors by slave masters. It was common for owners to impose the family name on the slaves.

Even though people were bought and sold as chattels, there was a bizarre notion that this forced labour was somehow "family". But family they became, as they shared the same space and interbred, though mainly by rape. In this most shameful episode in our history white owners also expected their slaves to worship with them, to take on their religious beliefs and customs.

Gillespie often regaled his friends with stories of how the Scots had influenced the blacks in his home state of Alabama. He spoke to his long-time collaborator, Willie Ruff, a bassist and French horn player, about how his parents told of the black slaves who spoke Gaelic, the tongue of their masters.

Ruff - a professor of music at Yale University, a musicologist and jazz man who played with Duke Ellington and Miles Davis - was struck by the words of Gillespie, and some years after the trumpeter's death set out to investigate connections between the Scots and the blacks of the southern US.

Symposium on Line Singing at Yale

The 1640 publication of the Boston Bay Psalm Book, the first book ever published in Amerca, was a user-friendly collection of metrical Psalms, a 'words only' songbook. And no event in the early history of New England Christians underscores so well how vital congreational 'line singing' was to church life. Line singing in its traditional mode depended on a designated leader, a precentor in Scotland, and a clerk in England, to speak or intone the first lines of a Psalm, pulling the whole church into a spirited unison response. This slow, dirge like way of worship dominated musical mainstream Protestant America for nearly two centuries when the introduction of hymn books, organized choirs, and musical instruments rendered the Bay Psalm book obsolete.

Yet even today, descendants of African slaves in America and in the West Indies, and a Dwindling number of white "Old Regular Baptists" in Kentucky, still cling to the formative elements of the "old Way" of congregational singing.

As one of the descendants of African slaves, line singing was as central to my own upbringing among 1930s Alabama foot washing Baptists, as it had been to the 1640 Yankees who lined out of the Boston Bay Psalm book.

But the subject broadened for me two summers ago. On a visit to Alabama I noticed for the first time that a small congregation of black Presbyterians -- a denomination that never succeeded in getting a foothold in the Baptist, Methodist and Sanctified world of my childhood -- were thriving across the river from where I grew up. More importantly, they were holding onto the line singing that white Presbyterians in America and the English speaking world abandoned more than a century ago.

Gaelic Psalm Singing

The Book of Psalms has long been used in the worship of Christian churches. In some churches in Scotland the psalms are the only songs used in public worship. This commitment to metrical psalmody is also related to a distinctive style of singing in the Gaelic language, where the psalms are sung a cappella (without musical accompaniment), and led by a precentor (literally ‘one who sings beforehand’). In Gaelic psalm singing, the precentor leads the praise by commencing the tune, which he sings along with the congregation for two lines of a four-line stanza. On the third line, the precentor sings the line solo, which is then repeated by the congregation; this occurs for each line until the end of the item of praise. The result is a unique musical event, full of the traditions of Celtic religious culture, and deeply moving in its praise of God.

{Lenape} {Cherokee} {Iroquois}

Tags: alleghenia, american indian, hopi, pocahontas
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