northanger (northanger) wrote,
northanger
northanger

tesserae

reading Azer's latest (Demons and Repellents) looked up Ayasofya:

Hagia Sophia :: On the interior, consevation and consolidation continue on the dome mosaics -- a slow, tedious, and underfunded project. A surprisingly large amount of mosaic remains in the dome--which is impossible to detect from floor level. However, from close-up it is easy to distinguish between the 6th-century mosaics and the later replacements. The 14th-century repairs, for example, are uneven, with reused gold tesserae of different sizes and mixed with other colors; some tesserae are painted, although this may have resulted from the 19th-century restorations. Two quadrants of the dome mosaics have been conserved; further work now awaits the extension or moving of the scaffolding--the equivalent of dismantling and re-erecting an 18-story building.

tessares appears in revelations (see: samuel23's tesseract magick):

Rev 6:8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power [exousia] was given unto them over the fourth part [tetartos: ordinal from 5064 tessares, neuter tessara = four] of the earth [ge], to kill [apokteino: from apo (separation; physical, of distance of place; temporal, of distance of time; of origin) + kteino (to slay)] with sword [rhomphaia: properly a long Thracian javelin, also a kind of long sword wont to be worn on the right shoulder], and with hunger [limos: probably from leipo (through the idea of destitution); leipo - to be left behind], and with death [thanatos - death], and with the beasts [therion: diminutive from the same as thera; from ther (a wild animal, as game; a hunting of wild beasts to destroy them; metaph. of preparing destruction for men)] of the earth.

tessareskaidekatos = the fourteenth

Romans 11:9 And David saith, Let their table [trapeza; probably contracted from 5064 tessares and peze; table or stand of a money changer] be made a snare [eis], and a trap [eis] [thera], and a stumblingblock [eis] [skandalon ("scandal"); probably from a derivative of kampto; to bend, bow, the knee (the knees)], and a recompence [eis] [antapodoma; from antapodidomi; the thing paid back, requital] unto them.

tetra- :: comb. form meaning "four," from Gk. tetra-, combining form of tettares, tessares "four" (see four).

Tesseract :: In geometry, the tesseract, or hypercube, is a regular convex polychoron with eight cubical cells. It can be thought of as a 4-dimensional analogue of the cube. Roughly speaking, the tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square.

Tessera :: A tessera (plural: tesserae, diminutive tessella) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube ... Tesserae is also the term for dice used in ancient Rome and for the layers of calcification on shark scales.

Ammianus Marcellinus :: Some of these (veterans), though few in number, shrink from the name of gamblers (aleatores), and therefore desire to be called rather tesserarii, persons who differ from each other only as much as thieves do from brigands. But this must be admitted, that while all friendships at Rome are lukewarm, those alone which are formed at the gambling table, as if they were gained by glorious toil, have a bond of union and are united by complete firmness of exceeding affection; whence some members of these companies are found to be so harmonious that you would take them for the brothers Quintilius. And so you may see a man of low station, who is skilled in the arts of dice-playing, walking abroad like Porcius Cato after his unexpected and unlooked-for defeat for the praetorship, with a set expression of dignity and sorrow because at some great banquet or assemblage a former proconsul was given a higher place of honor.

A Wrinkle in Time is a children's fantasy novel by Madeleine L'Engle, written in 1962. It is the first in her series of books about the Murry family. The main character is thirteen-year-old Meg Murry, who is regarded by her peers and teachers as a bad-tempered underachiever. Her family, who recognize her problem as lack of emotional maturity but also regard her as being capable of great things, includes her beautiful scientist mother, her five-year-old brother Charles Wallace, a nascent super-genius, and ten-year-old twin athlete brothers Sandy and Dennys. A Newbery Medal winner, the book begins with the line, "It was a dark and stormy night.", a duplicate of the opening words in Edward George Bulwer-Lytton's 1830 novel Paul Clifford. The Murrys are visited by an eccentric old woman named Mrs Whatsit, who has previously made the acquaintance of Charles Wallace. After drying her feet and having a midnight snack with Charles, Meg and their mother, Mrs Whatsit tells an already perplexed Dr. Murry that "there is such a thing as a tesseract".

It was a dark and stormy night; Meg Murry, her small brother Charles Wallace, and her mother had come down to the kitchen for a midnight snack when they were upset by the arrival of a most disturbing stranger. "Wild nights are my glory," the unearthly stranger told them. "I just got caught in a downdraft and blown off course. Let me sit down for a moment, and then I'll be on my way. Speaking of ways, by the way, there is such a thing as a tesseract." A tesseract (in case the reader doesn't know) is a wrinkle in time. To tell more would rob the reader of the enjoyment of Miss L'Engle's unusual book. "A Wrinkle in Time, winner of the Newbery Medal in 1963, is the story of the adventures in space and time of Meg, Charles Wallace, and Calvin O'Keefe (athlete, student, and one of the most popular boys in high school). They are in search of Meg's father, a scientist who disappeared while engaged in secret work for the government on the tesseract problem. note: something related to time travel.

mosaic :: art of arranging colored pieces of marble, glass, tile, wood, or other material to produce a surface ornament. Ancient Mosaics: In Egypt and Mesopotamia, furniture, small architectural features, and jewelry were occasionally adorned with inset bits of enamel, glass, and colored stone. Early Greek mosaics (5th–4th cent. B.C.) uncovered at Olynthus were worked in small natural pebbles. The use of cut cubes or tesserae was introduced from the East after the Alexandrian conquest. Roman floor mosaics were probably based upon Greek examples, and glass mosaics applied to columns, niches, and fountains can be seen at Pompeii. In Italy and the Roman colonies the floor patterns were produced both by large slabs of marble in contrasting colors (opus sectile) and by small marble tesserae (opus tessellatum). The tessera designs varied from simple geometrical patterns in black and white to huge pictorial arrangements of figures and animals; examples were found in Rome, Pompeii, Antioch and Zeugma (S Turkey), and N Africa.

look up greek words mentioning "mosaic" (mostly refer to Mosaic Law):

  • akribeia :: exactness, exactest care: in accordance with the strictness of the Mosaic law ; from the same as akribestatos

  • akribestatos :: most straitest; 1) exact, careful; 2) of the strictest sect: the most precise and rigorous in interpreting the Mosaic law, and in observing even the more minute precepts of the law and tradition; superlative of akribes (a derivative of the same as akron)

  • akron :: 1) the farthest bounds, uttermost parts, end, highest, extreme; 1a) of the earth; 1b) of heaven; neuter of an adj. probably akin to the base of akmen

  • akmen :: 1) a point; 2) extremity, climax, acme, highest degree; 3) the present time; accusative case of a noun ("acme") akin to ake (a point) and meaning the same

lithostrotos :: Pavement; 1) spread (paved with stones); 2) a mosaic or tessellated pavement; 2a) of a place near the praetorium or palace of Jerusalem; 2b) an apartment whose pavement consists of tessellated work; 2c) of places in the outer courts of temple. The word for "Pavement" is found nowhere else in the NT, but its Hebrew equivalent occurs just once in the OT, and it is evident that the Holy Sprit would have us link the two passages together. In #2Ki 16:17 we read, "King Ahaz cut off the borders of the bases, and removed the laver from off them; and took down the sea from off the brazen oxen that were under it and put it upon a "pavement" of stones."

2 Kings 16:17 ¶ And king Ahaz cut off the borders of the bases, and removed the laver from off them; and took down the sea from off the brasen oxen that were under it, and put it upon a pavement of stones.

MRTzPTh martsepheth; pavement; from RTzP ratsaph; 1) to fit together, fit out, pattern; 1a) (Qal) to be fitted out, design; a denominative from RTzP retseph; hot stone, glowing stone or coal, flame, firebolt, spark; for RShP resheph; coals, hot thunderbolt; flame, firebolt; from ShRP saraph; to burn.

John 19:13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.

Gabbatha; elevated or a platform; a raised place, elevation; of Aramaic origin, cf (01355 GBThA, GB back or side corresponding to 01354 [convex surface, back; 1a) back (of man); 1b) mound (for illicit worship); 1c) boss (convex projection of shield); 1d) bulwarks, breastworks (of arguments-fig.); 1e) brow, eyebrow; 1f) rim (of wheel) ], Greek 1042 gabbatha):

In the Greek was called Lithostrotos, or the pavement of stones, as the Syrian version renders it: it is thought to be the room Gazith, in which the sanhedrin sat in the temple when they tried capital causes; and it was so called, because it was paved with smooth, square hewn stones: "it was in the north part; half of it was holy, and half of it was common: and it had two doors, one for that part which was holy, and another for that part that was common; and in that half that was common the sanhedrin sat." So that into this part of it, and by this door, Pilate, though a Gentile, might enter. This place, in the language of the Jews, who at that time spoke Syrian, was Gabbatha, from its height, as it should seem; though the Syrian and Persian versions read Gaphiphtha, which signifies a fence or enclosure. Mention is made in the Talmud of the upper Gab in the mountain of the house; but whether the same with this Gabbatha, and whether this is the same with the chamber Gazith, is not certain. The Septuagint uses the same word as John here does, and calls by the same name the pavement of the temple on which Israelites fell and worshipped God, #2Ch 7:3. (Gill).

Gabbatha :: Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" "the temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton, i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall # Joh 18:28 19:13.

John 18:28 ¶ Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment : and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall , lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

praitorion; of Latin origin; judgment hall, hall of judgment, common hall, praetorium, palace; 1) "head-quarters" in a Roman camp, the tent of the commander-in-chief; 2) the palace in which the governor or procurator of a province resided, to which use the Romans were accustomed to appropriate the palaces already existing, and formerly dwelt in by kings or princes; at Jerusalem it was a magnificent palace which Herod the Great had built for himself, and which the Roman procurators seemed to have occupied whenever they came from Caesarea to Jerusalem to transact public business; 3) the camp of the Praetorian soldiers established by Tiberius.

The term "Praetorian" came from the tent of the commanding general or praetor [praeeo: "to go before, to precede, to lead the way"] of a Roman army in the field—the praetorium. It was a habit of many Roman generals to choose from the ranks a private force of soldiers to act as bodyguards of the tent or the person. They consisted of both infantry and cavalry. In time, this cohort came to be known as the cohors praetoria, and various notable figures possessed one, including Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Augustus Caesar (Octavianus). As Caesar discovered with the Legio X Equestris, a powerful unit more dangerous than its fellow legions was desirable in the field. When Augustus became the first ruler of the Roman Empire in 27 BC, he decided such a formation was useful not only in war but in politics. Thus, from the ranks of the legions throughout the provinces, Augustus recruited the Praetorian Guard.

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